The group’s main focus is investigating immune responses against viral infections and understanding how viral infections modulate host immunity in the mucosa. The group has mainly focused on characterising HIV-mediated perturbations in the lung, and how these impact host immunity against common respiratory pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Influenza virus, in low-income settings. We have shown that HIV-mediated perturbations in the lung are extensive, are not completely restored by antiretroviral therapy (ART), and that HIV persists in the lung of ART-treated aviremic patients. The group’s interest now includes defining the mechanisms of HIV persistence in the mucosal tissues (lung and gut) in ART-treated aviremic patients, with the goal of gaining insights to inform novel HIV cure strategies. In addition, the group also has growing interest in early immune development, especially in understanding how neonatal immune profiles impact vaccine responses and clinical outcomes later in life.